Thermoelectric devices are solid state heat pumps. Their main drawback is that they have a very poor efficiency, they use a lot of electricity that is wasted as heat. The key is to find applications that will use the waste heat. One application is a dehumidifier for cloth drying. Instead of dumping warm moist air outside in the winter, a thermoelectric humidifier can remove the water from the air and keep the warm air inside. A thermoelectric dehumidifier can also warm and dehumidify a bedroom, or a bathroom.
I started looking at how much it would cost to build such a dehumidifier. The cheapest thermoelectric element I could find is this one:
92Watts max, about 60 Watts optimal under 12V.
The following heatsinks may be attached to each side:
The hot side can be equipped with a 80mm fan, such as this quiet fan:
The cold side heatsink should be set downward, with a drip pan underneath to collect condensates. Some form of temperature control should maintain the cold side just at dew point for maximum efficiency. A hygrometer should turn on/off the dehumidifier when needed. I have a 12V 100Watts power supply that would be ideal for this.
Estimated cost: $70.
A more ambitious system would use 10 thermoelectric elements in series, powered by 120VAC through a rectifier. This would use 700 - 800 watts of electricity, and provide about 1KW of heat, considering the effect of dehumidification.
The small 100W dehumidifier could be set in areas of high moisture, while the 1KW dehumidifier could be integrated inside the furnace.